From the fairgov website:

"The National Employment Standards (NES) are 10 minimum employment entitlements that have to be provided to all employees. [Together with the National Minimum Wage, they] make up the [total] minimum entitlements for employees in Australia. 

An award, employment contract, enterprise agreement or other registered agreement can't provide for conditions that are less than the national minimum wage or the NES. They can’t exclude the NES.

The 10 minimum entitlements of the NES are:

  1. Maximum weekly hours (38 hour weeks)
  2. Requests for flexible working arrangements for employees who have worked with the same employer for at least 12 months that:
    • are the parent, or have responsibility for the care, of a child who is school aged or younger
    • are a carer (under the Carer Recognition Act 2010)
    • have a disability
    • are 55 or older
    • are experiencing family or domestic violence, or
    • provide care or support to a member of their household or immediate family who requires care and support because of family or domestic violence.
    • casual employees that:
      • they've been working for the same employer regularly and systematically for at least 12 months
      • there's a reasonable expectation of continuing work with the employer on a regular and systematic basis
  3. Parental leave and related entitlements
    • Employees are entitled to 12 months of unpaid parental leave. They can also request an additional 12 months of leave
    • Employees who are taking parental leave to care for an adopted child are also entitled to 2 days unpaid pre-adoption leave to attend relevant interviews or examinations. This leave can't be used if an employer tells an employee to take another type of leave (eg. paid annual leave).

    • Employees who have taken parental leave don't have to work for another 12 months before they can take another period of parental leave with that same employer.
      However if they have started work with a new employer they will need to work with that employer for at least 12 months before they can take parental leave.

  4. Annual leave
    • Full-time and part-time employees get 4 weeks of annual leave, based on their ordinary hours of work
    • Shiftworkers may get up to 5 weeks of annual leave per year.
  5. Personal carers leave and compassionate leave
    • Employees get:

      • 10 days each year for full-time employees
      • pro rata of 10 days each year depending on their hours of work for part-time employees.
    • All employees are entitled to 2 days compassionate leave each time an immediate family or household member dies or suffers a life threatening illness or injury.
      The compassionate leave can be taken as:
      • a single continuous 2 day period, or
      • 2 separate periods of 1 day each, or
      • any separate periods the employee and the employer agree.
  6. Community service leave
    • An employee is entitled to take community service leave while they are engaged in the activity and for reasonable travel and rest time. There is no limit on the amount of community service leave an employee can take.
  7. Long service leave
  8. Public holidays - click here to see your public holidays per state
  9. Notice of termination and redundancy pay
  10. Fair Work Information Statement